Understanding Normal Wound Healing Process

Jan 06, 2024

Dr Tan Yih Kai

The wound healing process is a complex series of biological events that involve various cellular and molecular interactions. Our bodies aim to restore damaged tissues and regain their structural and functional integrity through this process. The wound healing process comprises four highly programmed phases: haemostasis, inflammatory, proliferative, and remodelling. These phases must occur in the correct sequence and timeframe to ensure successful healing.

To understand how wounds heal, we need to familiarize ourselves with the key players involved:
1. Platelets: These tiny cell fragments in our blood play a crucial role in blood clotting.
2. White blood cells: They are the infection-fighting cells responsible for removing debris and combating pathogens.
3. Fibroblasts: These cells are responsible for producing collagen, a protein that provides strength and structure to the wound.
4. Angiogenic cells: They promote the formation of new blood vessels, ensuring proper blood supply to the wound site.


1) Haemostasis: This is the initial phase of the wound healing process. It begins immediately after an injury, aiming to stop bleeding. Blood vessels constrict, and platelets gather to form a clot to seal the bleeding vessels. This phase is vital to prevent excessive blood loss, creating a foundation for the subsequent phases of the healing process.


2) Inflammatory Phase: This phase begins immediately after injury and typically lasts a few days. During this phase, the body’s immune system responds to the wound by clearing debris, fighting infection, and releasing growth factors. Inflammation is essential for initiating the healing process and preparing the wound for tissue repair and regeneration in the subsequent phases.

During the inflammatory phase, several signs and symptoms may be observed, including:
Redness: The affected area may appear reddened due to increased blood flow.
Swelling: Swelling, or oedema, is a result of increased fluid accumulation in the tissues surrounding the wound.
Heat: The wound may feel warm to the touch due to increased blood flow.
Pain: Inflammation can cause localized pain and tenderness.
Loss of function: Depending on the location and severity of the wound, there may be some loss of function.


3) Proliferative Phase: This phase involves the rebuilding of damaged tissue. Fibroblasts, specialized cells responsible for producing collagen, play a critical role. These cells migrate to the wound area and start producing collagen, which provides structural support to the healing tissue. At the same time, angiogenic cells will form new blood vessels (angiogenesis), ensuring adequate oxygen and nutrient supply to the wound. Eventually, the epithelial (skin) cells will migrate to resurface the wound.


4) Remodelling Phase: The wound undergoes remodelling and maturation in the final phase. During this process, collagen fibres are realigned and strengthened, contributing to the wound’s tensile strength. Scar tissue forms as a result, although it doesn’t possess the same characteristics as the original tissue. Initially, the scars may appear raised, depressed, or have a different colour compared to the surrounding skin. Over time, the scar tissue undergoes further remodelling, becoming less noticeable. The remodelling process can take several months and is influenced by various factors, such as the size and location of the wound.

Q: How long does it take for a wound to heal?

A: The time it takes for a wound to heal can vary depending on various factors, such as the size and depth of the wound, overall health, and proper wound care. Minor wounds may heal within a few days to a couple of weeks, while larger or more complex wounds may take several weeks or even months.

Q: When should I seek medical attention for a wound?

A: It’s important to seek medical attention for a wound if it is deep, won’t stop bleeding, shows signs of infection (increased redness, swelling, warmth, or drainage), or if you have concerns about its healing progress. Additionally, if you have a chronic condition like diabetes that may affect wound healing, it is advisable to consult a healthcare professional.

Q: Can wounds heal faster with certain home remedies?

A: While certain home remedies, such as applying honey, aloe vera, or specific herbal preparations, may have some benefits for wound healing, it’s important to use them in conjunction with proper wound care and medical advice. It’s best to consult with a healthcare professional to determine the most appropriate treatment plan for your specific wound.

Q: What are some signs of wound infection?

A: Signs of wound infection may include increased pain, redness, swelling, warmth, pus-like drainage, a foul odour, or the wound not healing or worsening over time. If you suspect a wound infection, it’s crucial to seek medical attention promptly for proper evaluation and treatment.

Q: Is it normal for wounds to itch during the healing process?

A: Yes, mild itching around the wound area during the healing process can be normal as the tissues repair. However, excessive, or persistent itching could be a sign of an allergic reaction, infection, or other complications. It’s essential to avoid scratching the wound and consult a healthcare professional if itching becomes severe or concerning.

Q: Can scars be prevented entirely?

A: While scars are a natural part of the healing process, certain measures can help minimize their appearance. Proper wound care, avoiding tension on the wound, protecting it from sun exposure, and using scar-reducing treatments like silicone gel sheets or creams may help improve the final appearance of scars. However, complete prevention of scars may not be possible in all cases.

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